Rapid DNA is the generation of a DNA profile to identify an individual quickly (less than 2 hours).
The faster DNA results are available, the more they can impact critical military, forensic, homeland security, and intelligence decisions. And to maximize the impact of DNA identification for law enforcement, homeland defense, disaster victim identification and military applications, rapid DNA systems must be operable in the field.
The FBI defines Rapid DNA as “the fully automated (hands free) process of developing a CODIS Core Loci STR profile from a reference sample buccal swab. The “swab in – profile out” process consists of automated extraction, amplification, separation, detection, and allele calling without human intervention.”
The Rapid DNA Act of 2017
The bipartisan, bicameral Rapid DNA Act of 2017 was passed in the Senate and the House of Representatives on May 16, 2017.
The Rapid DNA Act establishes a system for the integration of Rapid DNA instruments for use by law enforcement "to solve and prevent violent crimes and other crimes, to exonerate the innocent, to prevent DNA analysis backlogs". Unlike traditional DNA analysis, which can take weeks, Rapid DNA analysis processes DNA samples in less than two hours.
This technology has the potential to change the paradigm for law enforcement. It can be deployed in investigative operations and booking facilities. Rapid DNA provides law enforcement officials with a new system that meets FBI quality assurance standards to compare DNA samples collected at the time of an arrest to profiles in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS).
The following organizations have sent letters of support for the Rapid DNA Act of 2015 and/or the Rapid DNA Act of 2017:
DNA Fingerprints and Privacy:
DNA Fingerprints are not Genetic Profiles - the two tests look at different aspects of an individual, are performed for different purposes. A DNA Fingerprint simply identifies an individual, while a Genetic Profile is designed to assess the health of an individual, and contains essentially every piece of genetic information in the human genome. To put this in perspective, a DNA Fingerprint contains approximately one-millionth of the information in a Genetic Profile.
DNA fingerprints are the optimal identification tool for two major reasons:
- DNA fingerprints are far more accurate than any other biometric modality including conventional fingerprints, facial recognition, iris scans, and voice recognition.
- DNA fingerprints preserve privacy - they contain absolutely no useful information about an individual other than identification. A DNA fingerprint contains much less usable information than an individual's address, phone number, photograph, or browser search history.
The ability of DNA fingerprints to identify a person with exquisite accuracy is accompanied by an emphasis on privacy protection - the DNA fingerprint generates absolutely no information concerning an individual's health or body composition or organic strengths or weaknesses.
Besides identifying an individual, DNA fingerprints can do two other things:
- DNA fingerprints can determine gender. This is accomplished by determining if an individual has just X chromosomes (female) or X and Y chromosomes (male). Gender is a politically-charged topic in some circles today - so to be clear, DNA fingerprints determine gender based solely on chromosomes.
- DNA fingerprints from two or more individuals can be compared to determine if the individuals are close biological relatives. DNA is passed from parent to child, and each child inherits half of his or her DNA from each parent. That means that by comparing DNA fingerprints, it is essentially always possible to determine if two people are parent, and child, often possible to determine if two people are likely to be siblings, and sometimes possible to determine if two people are likely to be grandparent-grandchild or aunt/uncles-niece/nephew. The use of DNA Fingerprints in kinship analysis has been applied to Law Enforcement (familial searching), paternity testing, immigration, and disaster victim identification.
DNA Fingerprints represent the most accurate and most private approach to human identification. The test provides Law Enforcement with a highly effective public safety tool while preserving the privacy of our citizens.